A reliability-centered maintenance program is in place, condition monitoring is a fact, and total productive maintenance (TPM) teams are functioning well. Plant reliability is up, production is at peak levels, and corrective maintenance has been successfully minimized. Is it time to sit back and say all maintenance problems have been eliminated?
What about the people, including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) representatives, who visit the plant and ask questions? How does ISO 9000 affect a maintenance program? The maintenance department is successful so far because it is staffed with good, experienced people. However, they do not seem to stay with the company as long as they used to. Those people and that experience may be harder to keep around in the future. So now what?
The impact of ISO 9000, OSHA, and the EPA is felt throughout industry. Procedures that should be performed must be documented so that the required reporting of what actually is done demonstrates that the desired result can be obtained. Procedures, whether written, oral, or traditional, usually spell out what tasks should be done. A task that is actually performed is recorded in quality control records, internal audits, process monitoring data, operator logs, and maintenance and repair records. The process of controlling documentation of what procedures should be and what is done is configuration management.
The best industrial activities in this country have a good basis of maintenance procedures. Procedures help attain consistent results and establish standards. As industry relies more on cross-training and teams to accomplish routine preventive maintenance, standardization and consistency become more important. How procedures are used should vary with the intent. Safety, routine operations and maintenance, and special procedures for critical or complex repairs may be handled in different ways.
Sometimes resistance arises with' the mention of procedures, leading to the technician's question, Don't they think I know what I'm doing? Asking these same technicians to document procedures recognizes their knowledge of the subject and enlists their support at the same time. It also makes them realize that not everyone performs in exactly the same way, which leads to which way is best and why. A standard procedure, openly developed with differing opinions considered, builds grass roots support. Procedures created through this method capture detailed personal knowledge not only of how to do the task well, but also of the problems and missteps that occurred in the past.
Proper procedures become reference material to settle a difference of opinion between veteran workers or to guide a new employee in the proper way to accomplish an assigned task. If procedures are used in an intelligent and consistent manner, they become everyone's ally (see section, Why Use Procedures?). To maintain credibility, the procedures must be right; when they are found to be in error, they must be promptly and formally corrected.
Procedures are related to the level of training in a maintenance organization. The fundamental, but unwritten, part of procedures is the basic knowledge required to execute a procedure. The higher the level of knowledge of the craft the worker has, the less detail is required within the procedure. The skill of the craft is the starting point from which procedures grow. However, requisite skills should be defined and not left to chance; the minimum skill level required should be stated. A training program must provide this skill to the newcomer. Experienced newcomers should be able to demonstrate the minimum level of knowledge and skills through testing, through professional certification, or by interview, as appropriate.
There may be logical levels of skill above the minimum that are appropriate for a specific organization. Advanced skill levels become important as cross-training and team building progress. On-the-plant-floor operations and maintenance overlap and operators can handle routine maintenance tasks, but there is a point where they rely on others for maintenance support and special skills. Many companies provide advanced training that qualifies individuals for special tasks and responsibilities. This training and certification-based testing or a practical demonstration qualifies an individual in the appropriate skill. Frequently, formal qualification for advanced levels goes hand in hand with additional incentives and rewards.
Controlling and changing procedures leads to configuration management. The goal is to maintain proper control, but it does not allow the administrative burden to become excessive. Configuration management identifies existing plant design characteristics and controls changes to ensure that structures, systems, equipment, and components meet design requirements; it ensures that the plant's physical and functional characteristics are reflected accurately in selected plant documents (for example, design, procurement, operating, testing, maintenance, and training).
Configuration management becomes increasingly important as maintenance workers become more involved with integrating predictive maintenance and as the line of demarcation between maintenance and production becomes less distinct. A configuration management program
Configuration management is widely used in the nuclear power industry. It is driven by regulatory agency concerns; public safety depends on each nuclear power plant's ability to maintain the design safety margins throughout the life of the plant. The purpose of the program is to ensure that all changes made to plant systems, operating procedures, and maintenance will not inadvertently reduce the safety margin provided by the initial design.
Although most industries do not operate in an environment as public safety conscious as the nuclear industry, the amount of outside agency regulation and oversight is increasing. The organization that can look ahead and prepare to answer the hard regulatory questions will be ahead of its competitors. At this time, the rigorous program required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission would not be cost effective for most other industries. However, many configuration management principles can be useful to any well-run business subject to outside regulation, oversight, or audit. The challenge is to adopt the principles and put them into operation cost effectively.
How is configuration managed? First, there must be an understanding of the design basis for the plant, its process, and equipment. Simply put, what is the plant designed to do and how is it supposed to be done based on the original plant design? The design basis must be defined because it is ground zero, the point of departure for all subsequent plant, process, and equipment changes. In the time the plant has been operating, many things may have affected the design basis.
Improper maintenance or operation may hinder the plant from doing what it was intended to do because of inappropriate repair parts or because operating procedures unknowingly reduce the capability of the plant. It may not be possible to completely reconstruct the design basis; in such cases, it is best to accurately determine the present configuration and capability and make this baseline the design basis.
Over the years, the design basis may have been deliberately changed; for example, the plant may now do something new, different, or better than it did originally. Modifications have been appropriate, but the modifications change the baseline. The design basis should have been changed to reflect the modifications.
Documents that state the design characteristics of the plant (or process or equipment) or that help maintain the design basis (procedures, test, drawings, parts lists, etc.) are an integral part of configuration management. These documents should be identified and handled in a special manner. They should be subject to special review when changes or modifications are proposed. The identification and control of design basis documents are keys to the long-term management of change. These documents must describe the plant as it actually exists. Changes should be subject to a technical review and trigger updating to support any changes.
Configuration management is implemented by
The benefits to an organization with an orderly method of planning, executing, and tracking changes and modifications are significant. Major maintenance jobs can be accomplished promptly and correctly the first time because planning is based on good information, lessons learned from previous work of a similar nature have been incorporated, an accurate procedure is available, and the proper parts and drawings are ready. Changes and modifications accomplish what they are intended to accomplish because a technical review established a design that is based on valid, as-is conditions. The process continues after the change because procedures, drawings, parts, and training are updated to reflect the change. Benefits include the following:
The successful implementation of all these topics will not be easy. What can be done to ensure the configuration management program will succeed?
First, institutionalize the process. Avoid the flavor of the month approach. Persistently and doggedly insist that the process be used. Do not settle for lip service. Starting any program is difficult, particularly if years of neglect must be overcome. Quietly educate so everyone understands what the program is expected to accomplish and what the benefits will be.
Second, devote the resources necessary to do the program right. However, do not let the program become a bandwagon for hangers-on. Keep the program as uniform and as simple as possible. Get the program running well in several small areas before expanding. Aim for the long haul; measure successes individually.
Third, learn from experience and follow up. Keep the program on track. Conduct internal audits and reviews to determine how the program is progressing and what the difficulties are. MT
Keith Young, a member of the Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals, is a senior associate for Maintenance Quality Systems, LLC, 1127-F Benfield Blvd., Millersville, MD 21108-2540; (410) 729-1290.
If an organization can answer "No" to all of these questions, it probably has a world-class maintenance organization.